Category Archives: India Facts

Faces of India

Once it was confirmed that I would be working in India this fall, I was excited to see if I could find out more about Indian mask traditions. Quick internet searches yielded little, only some tribal Himalayan masks to the north, and a number of colorful pieces in neighboring Sri Lanka.Talking with some people on the Maya project as well as  other mask friends gave me a few more  ideas about where to look.

Here’s a little of what I found!

Kerala

Kathakali

Kerala is a state in southern India that borders the Arabian Sea.  It is also home to kathakali, a highly stylized drama/dance.  The stories told in this form vary, but many are from the Mahabharata epic.

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Drummers and singers accompanied the characters throughout the performance.

If you arrive early to the performance, not only do you get to observer the performers apply their intense makeup, you also get a better seat. And I’m really glad we did.

Some of the makeup includeds 3-D elements, like the white disc at his cheeks.
Some of the makeup includes 3-D elements, like the white disc at his cheeks. The green faced pacha character is always a good guy in the story being told.
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The makeup is made largely from the powders of different stones, or sometimes vegetable matter, mixed with coconut oil.
This clownish character had a white, flower-like nose attached on top of the makeup.
This clownish character had a white, flower-like nose attached on top of the makeup.

After the makeup was applied, there was a demonstration of the techniques used in the dance. You must train for many years before performing in the kathakali,  and the abilities of the dancers makes this clear.

The way they could move their eyes was nothing short of amazing. Eyes are very important in the communication of emotions in the drama, and these dancers have amazing muscular control. In addition, the performers of kathakali can isolate muscle groups in their face.  Not just like flaring nostrils or wiggling ears—try to imagine just the tops of the cheeks bouncing up and down while the rest of the face remains calm. It’s impressive!

The character designs painted on their faces come alive as these muscle isolations occur. These facial gestures are combined with mudras, or coded positions of the hands, to complete the attitude.

Lord Shiva and Parvati reveal their true nature after a series of comic antics.
Lord Shiva and Parvati reveal their true nature to Arjuna after a series of comic antics.

Kerala Folklore Museum

There are artifacts from throughout southern India, including the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala, inside this beautiful building.

 

In Ernakulam, a more modern town across the water from Kochi, I was excited to find a museum dedicated to folklore. There were several interesting faces inside. The museum was not always the most successful in providing context for the various images, but I did start to get a sense of mask styles from different regions.

This beak is part of a costume for the Garuda bird in a Kathakali play.
This beak is part of a costume for the Garuda bird in a Kathakali play.
Costume for a Poothan ritual dance of Kerala.
Costume for a Poothan ritual dance of Kerala. According to wikipedia, Poothan is the lieutenant of Shiva. These dances are performed once or twice year to clean the village of evil spirits.
Another ritual dance from Kerala is the Kummattikali. It is celebrated on the festival of Onam (in Aug/Sept). Again (arrgh) I refer to wikipedia, which categorizes this and the Poothan dance as "devotional"
Another ritual dance mask from Kerala. Again I refer to wikipedia, which categorizes this (and the Poothan dance) as a “devotional art form”. The festival is in August/September, so I missed my chance to see it performed.
Another ritual performance called Theyyam was represented by these painted heads.
Another ritual performance called Theyyam was represented by these painted heads.
After some more research on wikipedia, it seems that these heads are records of some makeup styles for performers of the Theyyam cult.
After some more research on wikipedia, it seems that these heads are records of some makeup styles for performers of the Theyyam cult.
I include some pictures below from the wikipedia article for reference.
I include some pictures below from the wikipedia article for reference.
"Bali theyyam, Payyannur" by Jasinth M V - Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bali_theyyam,_Payyannur.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Bali_theyyam,_Payyannur.jpg
“Bali theyyam, Payyannur” by Jasinth M V – Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bali_theyyam,_Payyannur.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Bali_theyyam,_Payyannur.jpg
"Bhagavathi at Vikranandapuram Kshetram, Taliparamba" by prasadnp - PhotographedPreviously published: 2013/04/29. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 via Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bhagavathi_at_Vikranandapuram_Kshetram,_Taliparamba.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Bhagavathi_at_Vikranandapuram_Kshetram,_Taliparamba.jpg
“Bhagavathi at Vikranandapuram Kshetram, Taliparamba” by prasadnp – PhotographedPreviously published: 2013/04/29. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 via Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bhagavathi_at_Vikranandapuram_Kshetram,_Taliparamba.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Bhagavathi_at_Vikranandapuram_Kshetram,_Taliparamba.jpg

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I like the really basic expression in this mask from Karnataka.
I like this really basic expression.
The mask in the lower center, also a ritual mask from Karnataka, seems to build on the basic expression.
The mask in the lower center, also a ritual mask from Karnataka, seems to build on the basic expression.

 

 

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At the rear of the kathakali stage inside the Kerala Folk Museum.
Puppets!

There were also a few examples of puppets in the museum. I knew there were some famous puppets in the state of Rajasthan in the north, but these have a different feeling than their northern relations.

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Spare hands in mudras and extra feet.
Spare hands in mudras and extra feet.
Shadow Puppet from Andhra Pradesh.
Shadow Puppet from Andhra Pradesh.

Karnataka

Museum of Mankind

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A mask from the Limbu people near Geyzing, Sikkim in Northeastern India. It is carved in wood and depicts Bhairava, a fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation.

We moved on to the state of Karnataka, just north and east of Kerala.  In the city of Mysore, famed for ashtanga yoga and sandalwood crafts, we visited the Indira Ghandi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (aka the Museum of Mankind).

A Mahakal mask from the Limbu of Geyzing, Sikkim. It is a variant of the one in red.
A Mahakal mask from the Limbu of Geyzing, Sikkim. It is a variant of the one in red.

The collection features many tribal art forms from different parts of India. I was lucky to find  included a couple of masks from the Himalayas in this southern state.  The style is quite different form the types I had seen in Kerala.  I imagine the  species of wood used for carving is different as well.

Though I was a bit disappointed that I didn’t find as many masks as I had hoped, the museum also features a large collection of terra cotta figures from around India.  These figures provide some insight into the style and decorative idiosyncrasies of the culture to which they belong.

Terra Cotta elephant at the Museum of Mankind in Mysore.
Terra Cotta elephant at the Museum of Mankind in Mysore.

 

Terra Cotta from Bihar, in  the north
Terra Cotta from Bihar, in the north
Sculpture of a woman from a folk community in Karnataka.
Sculpture of a woman from a folk community in Karnataka.

Miscellaneous faces

Street art in Kochi
Street art in Kochi
There are schools on the backwaters of Alleppey, and where there are schools, there are computers. They are guarded by this fearsome beast.
There are schools on the backwaters of Alleppey, and where there are schools, there are computers. They are guarded by this fearsome beast.
At a cafe in Kochi.
At a cafe in Kochi.
Random kids who instantly wanted to be in my picture while I photographed ruins in Hampi.
Random kids who instantly wanted to be in my picture while I photographed ruins in Hampi.
Case trying to speak tiger at the Mysore Palace.
Case trying to speak tiger at the Mysore Palace.
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Horn OK Please

I’ve always been a very visual learner. When learning a new place, it is no different. Cross-referencing my physical experience of moving through a city with the visual representation of the journey on a map is important to me.

I had an idea of the location of my guest house before leaving, but only an idea. Addresses in India follow different syntax than what I am accustomed to, and many addresses include items like “nearby this prominent location” or “opposite of this building you will hopefully already know or be able to locate”. Building numbers and street names don’t’ seem to be used much, if it all.

My first night: Sector 8, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai
My first night: Sector 8, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai

At 11:30pm, it was a dark ride and over an hour’s drive from the airport. I’m not really sure the path we took, but traffic was not bad. As we got closer, the cab driver would stop and ask people on the street about the location of my guest house, or at least the hospital it was said to be nearby. I checked in, notified my contacts I had safely arrived, and was asleep by 1:30.

Thursday, First Day

Eastern view from the guest house
Eastern view from the guest house
Downward view from the guest house
Downward view from the guest house
Symmetrical view from the guest house
Symmetrical view from the guest house

I looked out of my 6th floor window in the morning to look at the suburb of New Panvel. There were some nearby hills, a lake, and some cows grazing in a grassy triangle between the street and the highway. After a breakfast and couple quick phone conversations, it was determined that I would be changing residence to a more central location in Mumbai. I packed up my things, had a quick lunch, and took a taxi to Vashi station to meet Sheetal, our artistic consultant/coordinator, wardrobe supervisor, charge painter, etc.

During our drizzly cab ride to join Jinal and Toral, who are working in production and stage management on Maya, Sheetal and I discussed a work plan. There was so much sensory information from the streets we passed along that it was difficult to focus. There were different styles of architecture and plant life. There was the constant (literally) honking of horns as cars, trucks, motorcles, scooters, rickshaws, hand drawn carts, and pedestrians wove the fabric of traffic. In many cases, traffic lanes and signals are merely a suggestion of what one might do if so inclined.

Haji Ali Dargh. This mosque is situated out in the water, and only accessible by foot path at low tide.
Haji Ali Dargah. This mosque is situated out in the water, and only accessible by foot path at low tid

We collected Jinal and Toral and looked at one of our two prospective workspaces. It was in an office in South Mumbai, not far from the beautiful Nariman Point. It was very clean, carpeted and formal, and the hours were restricted to 9-6. It’s pretty difficult to stay tidy when sculpting clay, using papier mache, etc. After the tour, we all agreed that it wasn’t optimal. The artistic process doesn’t always easily conform to a business day schedule. Sometimes the work you are doing suddenly takes off late in the day, and you would be a fool to stop working because of an external and arbitrary stop time…especially on the condensed time frame we are on.

With my wet bags up on the rack of the taxi, the four of us proceeded along the waterfront to Worli Sea Face and the home of Shaheen Mistri, founder and CEO of Teach For India. After meeting Raju, a former student of Sheetal and a recent arts school graduate, the five us stepped through each of the masks and puppets needed, the materials required and so on. After a delicious meal of dal, rice, and vegetable dishes, I moved my belongings into a room at Shaheen’s place.

Character designs from the show!
A character design from the show!
Keeper-Obsidian
I will be interpreting the designs of Simi as I create these creatures

Shop til you Drop

The next day was shopping day. or more like an education day.  Either way you look at it, it was ALL day.

My new trusty sidekick Raju took me all around streets and streets of markets. I think we were in Crawford Market. Each street of stalls is sort of thematic: “Plastics”,  “Stationery”, “Machine parts”, etc. Traffic is of course insane, and the horns remained constant. Social relationships were at play, it was very clear, though I don’t know who was which part. it took quite some time to break out of the spell of it and remember what things I was looking for. Most vendors spoke Marathi or Hindi, and very few spoke a little English. I still only have only the most general idea where we were most of the time.

Morning in South Mumbai
Morning in South Mumbai

After dodging crumbling pavements and suspicious pools of water for sometime, we entered a primarily Muslim neighborhood. Here was much more of a ‘junk store’ approach. It reminded me of a parallel experience in years ago in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, where at the time there were many stores of collected junk for resale under awkward lighting. All this junk, however, is laid out in the street on tarps and such. According to Raju, all of it is second hand and/or stolen. This was in the Chor Bazaar (“Thief Bazaar”). Raju reminded me to watch my pockets.
At 1:30, the muezzin started calling, and the street was about to close for prayer. We caught a cab as soon as we could and got out of the neighborhood before it was impossible. We ventured forth and north to Dadar. This is where I will be working, close to the Dadar West train station.  We grabbed lunch from a restaurant to go— really I suppose it was a food stand. Samosa chaat, a noodle roti and something else potatoey. It was all very good (though the next day Sheetal chided Raju for giving my untrained stomach street food).  The work space is a little small, but accessible at all hours and surrounded by other markets. It will be awesome!

The first day!
The first day!

We looked for more materials—it just takes sooo long! I was simultaneously taking note of, well, everything. The sounds, the signs, the traffic, the experience of being the only person who looks like me in a group of thousands, what materials are common in US but hard to find here, what materials are in both but with radically different names, and what the Indians like to use. Which is apparently thermocol. That’s styrofoam. There’s a lot of thermocol that has been intricately shaped and is often used for a variety of festivals. I may be learning some new materials!

Looking at the bottom of a mask carved from thermocol by Sunil
Looking at the bottom of a mask carved from thermocol by Sunil

With things still running a bit slowly, and with all my senses still being assaulted, we took the train up to Mahim Junction to look at the baskets woven on the street. We commissioned a full sphere basket as a test as an armature for sculpting some of the helmet masks. We had at least and hour before it would be ready, so we took the train two stops back down to Dadar. Traveling back to Dadar was more hectic because of rush hour. The trains doors are left open, and many people sort of hang out the sides. New Yorkers: if you think you know the stress of a rush hour subway, think again. Mumbai has you on this one.

Suddenly the purchasing mojo sort of kicked in and things were found without too much trouble. Hooray! We dropped it off at the workspace.  Once back in Dadar, we were suddenly able to find many materials we wanted right away. The reward of the day!

View out of our workspace.
View out of our workspace.

We closed up the studio and went once more to the train to collect our new basket. As we let several overcrowded trains pass in the hope of a less populated car, Raju told me that he had once seen a drunk man climb on top of the train because it was so crowded. However, he hit the power line and was dead on the ground in six seconds. His entire person was aflame.

We took a cab.

The basket collected and the day ended, we traveled back to Worli Sea Face for some food and rest.

Setting it all up

The Sculpting area!
The Sculpting area!

The next day was full of plotting out work schedules for each day and setting up the studio. A well-organized workspace cannot be beat! Having experienced a bit of what was available in the markets, I tried to determine with what material each masks could be made. Sheetal brought me some powdered clay – I had never used it before and was dubious. As Raju painted some of the thermocol pieces created by another artist on the project, I managed to figure it out (I think). And now the first mask is underway!

Getting designs ready.
Getting designs ready.
Draft version of our monkey! I will make a mold and cast 9 of them.
Draft version of our monkey! I will make a mold and cast 9 of them.
Sheetal and Zamir
Sheetal and Zamir
Sunil's work stored above, transforming the studio into an installation piece at the same time.
Sunil’s work stored above, transforming the studio into an installation piece at the same time.

Rest easy

The following day I took off from studio work to change residence again. Now I am locate just between Worli and Dadar in Prabhadevi. A quick walk around yesterday afternoon yielded the location of Starbucks (and therefore internet) and thus I am able to write this all now. I don’t know how often my workload will permit blogging, but I will try to keep you all updated at least with a couple of pictures now and then!

Rest easy, Portlanders. I am not so far from home. We even have a LLoyd Center.
Rest easy, Portlanders. I am not so far from home. We even have a LLoyd Center.